Dr. Basheer Baj Toum
Faculty of Education, Umm al-Qura University, Mecca.
The topic of this paper is to define the positi.on of educational philosophy in the Islamic educational theory. Dealing with the topic has led to the discussion of some non-Islamic educational theories and the place of education philosophy therein. In this way the paper has addressed the explicatory educational theory and the practical educational theory.
The explicatory educational theory was meant by it proponents to be similar to physical or natural sciences theory, i.e. merely descriptive and explanatory. Its content is the experimental knowledge resulting from the researchers conducted in educational psychology and sociology. Religious, metaphysical and moral knowledge on the other hand, is not included in the structure of this educational theory. It has clearly defined functions: i.e. analysis, clarification. criticism and justification ... etc to defend the atheist and materialistic outlook.
The practical educational theory is one which directs and guides to what ought to be. Some of its advocates do not differentiate it from educational philosophy because philosophy to them is, despite the age of specialization in which we Jive, a comprehensive doctrine from which education emanates. Other advocates accord a clearly defined status to the philosophy of education and leave the door open for the knowledge resulting from psychology, sociology, philosophy, history, religion and ethics to participate in building up the educational theory. As religion in their opinion is a personal matter which does not permeate life or direct it, they had to use philosophy as a source of educational beliefs and moral values.
The hypotheses on which the explicatory educational theory rests after being confirmed by observation, and the educational principles embodied in the practical educational theory are all an inadequate human effort which can be accepted or rejected.