The Role of Arab Islamic Civilization in the Rise of European Universities

The academic trend in Islam began clearly when the first word off the first Quranic verse (lqra) "read" was revealed. After that holy Quranic verses and prophetic traditions (hadith) came in frequent succession to consolidate this trend and emphasize its essece. Academic and scientific achievements were linked to the service of Islamic Sharia purposes; hence science or learning derived its sound human orientation. The injunction "read" in the holy Quranic verse did not come in an absolute sense but under the condition that this reading must be "in the name of your Lord who created". Reading should be in the name of the Lord i. e. within the framework of divine education. Thus it was the creator of man who laid down to man the basic principles of the educational course or curriculum to direct him towards what is good. Then how can any sensible person think of abandoning the creator's path to that of the invented? Because in this way he will be abandoning the education of the perfect to that of the imperfect, which is neither reasonable nor acceptable by any criterion of knowledge. From this point of view, the concept of learning in Islamic theory part! company with its counterpart in the western theory.

Starting from this Islamic clear vision, Muslim religioui scholars or jurists (faqihs) made it compulsory for students of jurisprudence (fiqh) to study other disciplines or branches of learning in order to serve Islamic faith and law in accordance with the basic rule which stipulates that "anything which is indispensable for what ii obligatory is also obligatory".

Hence we realize the importance of the ideological motive which had directed the study of other disciplines such as geometry astronomy, algebra, arithmetic and Arabic ... etc.


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