Demolishing Dichotomy on Concept and Implementation of Education in the Islamic Society: Indonesian Case


In the past, since Fajrul Islam (7th century) till 11th century, there was not any dichotomy between Islamic sciences and non-Islamic sciences in Islamic education. Triggered by al-Ghazali with the publication of his book “Tahafut al-Falasifah” (Incoherence of the Philosophers), which later on, was strongly encountered by Ibn-Rushd through his book “Tahafut al-tahafut” (Incoherence of Incoherence), Islamic society was at once, began to be imposed by the idea of dichotomy. Al-Ghazali, for instance, classified sciences in their respect to superiority among them, Fardh al-kifayah and fardh al-‘ain. The dispute between them could be illustrated as attempts to underline the primacy of ‘dhikr’ above ‘fikr’ or vise versa. The polemic since then contributed a lot in striking feature of Muslim education since Middle Ages until now; dichotomy between two sets of sciences: the ‘religious’ and the ‘foreign’ with subordination of the latter after the first.  

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