In this paper I have tried to argue that the two widely used paradigms of Individualism in Western social science, and Collectivism in Soviet social science, are not appropriate for Islamic social science on account of the secularism (disregard of revelation) of the former and the “scientific atheism” of the latter. I have further tried to argue that the hypothetico-deductive and empirical methodology (often called logical positivism) of natural and physical science is not appropriate for social and behavioral science in general, and Islamic social behavioral science in particular. It would be more fitting to regard the various disciplines of social and behavioral science as moral sciences in order to incorporate the values, morals, and purposes of society in theorybuilding and hypothesis-formation. Accordingly, I am arguing in favor of a moral explanation of human behavior and social processes. A moral explanation is one which seeks to discover the causes (immediate antecedents) as well as reasons (including motives and intentions) behind human behavior with the greater responsibility for the explanation resting with the latter.