Communication and Human Development

Human Resources Development: A Muslim World Perspective

This paper seeks to define human resources development (HRD) as a necessary, if not a sufficient, tool for bringing about societal change in less developed countries &DC‘s), and reflects upon different concepts of ”development,” including the Islamic view of it. Then, it reviews the status of education in the Muslim World and moves on to describe the TALIM model of HRD. In the end, a few salient features of the mechanism of this model are suggested. Also, an HRD policy plan that needs to be implemented by the Muslim Ummah is included as an appendix.

It can be easily argued that HRD has been an established tradition since time immemorial, as it is difficult to determine when individual apprenticeship started. The well-developed ancient civilizations of China, India, Mesopotamia and Egypt would have been impossible without an established tradition of apprenticeship. In the West, however, HRD as an organized activity does not have a long history. Here they have only recently begun to realize its significance. The West has now started to move from the stage of treating labor as a disposable element of production to a position where “human factor” is considered significant as both the planner and the beneficiary of the fruits of production.

According to Knowles (1960) and Nadler (1970), HRD is a strategy of developing skilled manpower. Nadler (1970) defines HRD as a series of organized activities, conducted within a specified time, and designed to produce behavioral change. According to him, it has four components: (1) employee training, (2) employee education, (3) employee development, and (4) nonemployee development.

The difference between training and education is that while training minimizes individual differences, education maximizes them. Development, however, is an on-going process involved in both training and education and is meant for ever-improving knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA). As a broader concept, KRD, in connection with various development sectors is considered a vital strategy for a nation’s cumulative growth, and is especially relevant to the needs of LDC’s (Quabain, 1966; Arasteh, 1969; ILO, 1976;Kamaruzzaman, l978). However, the nature, scope, content, and management and evaluation strategies and criteria vary from one development ideology to another, as will be seen in the discussion of different concepts of development.

The HRD strategy is not confined to economic aims only, for it also seeks to promote the principle of wider public participation by creating employment through labor-intensive technology, investing in education and training, expanding government programs for social services, creating indigenous managerial, scientific and technical skills, and by establishing effective social service institutions. HRD uses educational indicators to measure national development. HRD is important for growth because (1) in most LDC’s, human resources are in abundance; (2) human resources are not yet adequately developed; and (3) cumulative development can be attained through HRD.

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