A Survey of Christian Religious Education in the United States

Abstract : Prior to the landmark Supreme Court decision of June 1963, which banned public prayer from the public schools, Christian religious education was often a routine part of the overt instruction provided by the American public school system. However, in the wake of that legal milestone, even though instruction in the Judeo-Christian interpretation of religious history continued to be taught covertly, American churches began relying more heavily on providing Christian religious education. This article briefly presents Christianity’s contemporary status in the United States and reviews such religious education methods as Sunday school, vacation Bible school, Christian youth groups, catechism, private Christian schools, Youth Sunday, and children’s sermons. The survey concludes with a look at the growing interface between such education and the lessons of psychology as well as training and certifying Christian religious educators.

Relevance of Shiblī’s educational philosophy

Abstract: Shibli Nuímani, a late 19th century scholar, advocated a balanced educational philosophy for the Muslims in India. While most of hiscontemporaries wanted to teach traditional education to make Muslims retaintheir religious identity in the changed political situation, others stressed onmodern science and learning to face the challenges of modernity. TraditionalIslamic education aimed at the attainment of virtues while pursuing knowledgeas an obligation and produced scientists and philosophers but these promotersof traditional education were ignorant of the demands of their time, whereasthe modernist group considered traditional education unnecessary. Shibli usedhistory and kal...m to teach Muslims the unique characteristics of Islamiceducation and stressed that both groups need to make the Qurí...n their mainguide and urged the ëulam...í to take the lead.

Keywords: educational philosophy, modernity, ëulam...í, curriculum, tradition,reformation

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Madrasah in Singapore: Tradition and modernity in religious education

Abstract: The educational policies of the Singapore government are drivenby the needs of a modern knowledge-based society and economic development,with the state advocating modernity while the Muslim minority, arguably,appeared to be caught in tradition and holding on to ìold fashionedî education.However, whether the new attempts at modernizing madrasah education drivenby the state will succeed remains to be seen, as earlier attempts of reformationdriven by the Muslim community, or parts thereof, have been ratherunsuccessful. This paper analyses the discourse between tradition andmodernity of Islamic religious education in Singapore.

Keywords: Singapore, madrasah, reformation, modernization, tradition

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Critical Pedagogy, Islamisation of Knowledge and Muslim Education

Abstract: This study attempts to reconstruct Western critical pedagogy from an Islamic perspective and to explore its contribution to the resolution of the crisis in the Muslim mind and Islamic education. It analyses the underlying philosophical assumptions behind critical theory, compares it with Islamic philosophy of education and with the Islamisation of Knowledge project, reconstructs the Western critical pedagogy and uses the arguments of Muslim scholars to justify the need for critical pedagogy in Muslim education. It is argued that an Islamised critical pedagogy can offer an adequate resolution to the crisis in the Muslim mind.

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Religion and language in the transformation of education in northern Nigeria during British colonial rule, 1900-1960

Abstract : This study discusses the vital roles that religion and language played in the transition and transformation of education in northern Nigeria during British colonial rule, 1900-1960. It traces the history of early contacts between European explorers and traders with the people of northern Nigeria and the Sokoto Caliphate before the establishment of colonial rule. In particular, the study discusses the colonial administration’s policies on religion and language and how they were used as instruments of power and social stability. It probes the effectiveness of the Lugardian policy of non-interference in religious affairs in which Qurʾanic schools and missionary schools were left to function independently to serve the interests of the colonial government. It also explores the issue of language, especially of writing Hausa and other Nigerian languages in Arabic script, called Ajamiwhich was scrapped by the British colonial administration and its effects on the Islamic religious education and mass adult literacy in northern Nigeria.

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Education and transmission of knowledge in medieval India

Abstract : The various regions of the Indian subcontinent came into contact with the Islamic cultural tradition in the seventh century CE. Indian scholars were able to leave a mark on the world of Islamic scholarship especially in the fields of ḥadīth and other connected disciplines, significantly underlining their recognition for contributions in the Islamic East. An attempt has been made to analyse and to understand the processes of transmission of knowledge through formal and informal means, including the transfer of accumulated experience to the next generation and even the passing of “intuitive knowledge” to the seeker of knowledge. It has been argued that the level of Indian scholarship in certain disciplines was at par with the level of scholarship in the Islamic East. It has also been examined that during the medieval period Sanskrit based studies flourished at important Hindu pilgrimage centres such as Benaras, often described by European travellers as the Athens of India. The Royal and private libraries functioned with firm footings. Finally, it is shown that education and transmission of knowledge was organized in a manner that owes much to the best of Greco-Arab tradition.

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Views from the Madrasa: Islamic Education in Bangladesh

Executive Summary : This paper examines tertiary-level Islamic education in Bangladesh, providing in-depth analysis of the relationship between madrasa education and Islamist and radical politics. The report examines the political consciousness of madrasa teachers and graduate students in Bangladesh, and analyzes their worldviews with regard to the West and the United States. The report reviews student and teacher responses to negative media coverage of madrasa education in Bangladesh while also looking at the alleged connections between madrasas and militancy. The paper concludes with a look at the mushrooming growth of ulama-led non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Bangladesh.

Perspectives on the Discourse of Islamization of Education

Abstract : Islamic educationists and thinkers put forward that the concepts of education should be anchored in the strengths of akidah (faith). They prescribe that faith and knowledge should be integrated to ensure that the individuals can be guided to be the khalifatullah (Allah’s vicegerent). Knowledge should be relied to permanent sources and not to relative ones to ensure that its existence is in line with the ultimate and permanent faith and beliefs. Men’s intellectual abilities are closely linked to the Creator. Educational system which is not aqidahoriented will produce imbalanced and less harmonious societies. The holding of the First World Conference on Muslim Education in 1977 was significant event that in fact boost up the resurgence of education in Muslim societies. The fundamental purpose of the conference was to bring back into the Muslim education the Islamic vision. At the background of the historic event, there was a realization among Muslim scholars of the crisis that had beset their education over time. Examining the relevant literature, this paper attempts to present various perspectives on Islamization of Education including the crisis of the Muslim mind, the major findings of the Makkah World Conference, the neutrality of modern knowledge, the process of Islamization and teacher education.

Key Words: Islamization, Khalifatullah, education, knowledge, teacher

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