An Islamic Perspective on the Expectancy Valence Theory

The most commonly used classification of motivation theories among organizational behavior scholars is the content and process theories (Altman, Valenzi, and Hodgetts 1985). While content theories address what motivates employees, process theories speculate about how to motivate them (Bedeian 1980). When Muslim scholars have discussed motivation theories, they have explained the Islamic perspective on the content approach. For example, Sharafeldin (1988) compared content theories with the socialist approach of motivation. He emphasized the extrinsic motives of Islamic values and concluded that these values are alternative motivators for Muslims to achieve better performance. Ahmad (1988,3) also reviewed content theories and argued that the ritual aspect of the human personality is an intrinsic motive other than the “materialistic-orientation”o f the content theories. In addition, Shareef (1988, 11) noted that while certain Islamic actions will fulfill the self actualization needs, “economic incentives are motivators only in life-threatening situations.”

The Theoretical Foundations of Incorporating Islamic Beliefs in a Stress Inoculation Program for Muslims

Little data are available about the nature of stress which Muslims in North America frequently endure. Muslim scholars have not attempted to define the major stressors these Muslims experience, nor have they furnished Muslims with an inoculation program that integrates Islamic beliefs with cognitive techniques in order to change stress quality and quantity. The development of such a program, however, is not possible without theoretical foundations that employ the findings of stress research. On the other hand such a theory, if fully developed, is not functional without empirical data to sustain its basic propositions.

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